Dan Hough

Conway's Game of Life on Ethereum

Published 31 January 2021 in Vancouver, Canada (~7min read)

Want to see it??
➡️ Visit Conway’s Game of Life for Ethereum.

Since 2014 I have been slowly (very slowly) building implementations of Conway’s Game of Life for different programming languages and technologies.

Most recently I set out to write a version of the Game of Life which “runs on Ethereum”. In other words, it’s a Smart Contract. In other words, it’s a Distributed App (Dapp). In other words, it’s a small application written in Solidity. There are many ways to describe it but the coolest way, in my opinion is, “it’s Conway’s Game of Life for Ethereum.”

Here's a transaction taking place.
Here's a transaction taking place.

Try it out

As I’ll explain later, I decided not to deploy this on the Ethereum main-net, so if you want to play with it, you can do so using the Rinkeby Test Network - or you can just watch as others do.

I’d recommend also installing MetaMask, or using Brave as your browser, in order to make transactions more easily.

How’d I do it?

I started by completing a Hello World tutorial by Brij Mohan, and then started from scratch with a new project. This involved using Truffle, a CLI to help with writing and interacting with smart contracts and Ganache, a personal ethereum blockchain (for much quicker development), among some more common JavaScript tools.

I did it entirely using TDD, so I wrote my tests first (in JavaScript, thank goodness) and then slowly but surely implemented the rules of the game.

I’ve written many Games of Life, but this was the most challenging.



Before starting, I vaguely knew that the more work my contract did, the more ‘expensive’ it was to run. So I focused on trying to make it efficient. Normally when implementing the game of life, I create a two-dimensional array to represent the world, loop through all the possible neighbours of each cell and I check if it is on or off the grid. With the languages I’ve used so far this is straightforward: many allow signed, negative integers for indexes and automatically allocate memory, and often won’t complain if I’m referencing an element which doesn’t exist.

With Solidity, I tried to make sure I wasn’t going to even try to reference a position in the grid that didn’t exist (such as -1), since I’d then need to handle an error. It’s definitely better to avoid an error here.

In an effort to make my contract more efficient, I tried to avoid allocating too much memory for a number, e.g., 16 bits when all I needed was 8. I also tried to avoid switching between byte arrays and strings, when replacing the old world with the new one, so that less casting would be necessary.

Thanks to some very helpful compilers and interpreters doing most of this work for me, my usual programming work (mostly JavaScript) doesn’t often involve quite so much decision-making around integer sizes. This was surprisingly fun and a very different challenge than usual.

Deployment - too much Gas?!

After I got it all working, I started learning more seriously about the cost of Ethereum transactions. It turns out that despite all this thought about performance and the runtime cost, I had inadventedly made my contract expensive even to deploy onto a network.

Ethereum has this concept of “gas.” Each time you perform a transaction of any kind (send ETH, deploy smart contract, interact with smart contract, etc) the initiating party must offer some ETH to the various miners on the network whose hardware processes the transactions. “One gas” is worth an amount in “Gwei”, which is a denomination of the currency worth 0.000000001 ETH. That amount can be set by the person initiating, but the recommended price is a value which fluctuates based on supply and demand.

With all of this in mind, I decided to find out how much it might cost to deploy in a fiat currency such as the US Dollar. I opened up truffle console to estimate the gas by running ConwaysGameOfLife.new.estimateGas(), looked up how much 1 gas would be on the main-net at https://ethgasstation.info/, and found out the rate of ETH to USD. This is how I worked out the cost.

gasPrice = 145                        # Obtained from ethgasstation
gasTxCost = 722539                    # Obtained using `estimateGas()`
ethToUSDPrice = 1305.33               # Obtained from Google
costInGwei = gasPrice * gasTxCost     # => 104768155
costInETH = costInGwei * 0.000000001  # => 0.104768155
costInUSD = costInETH * ethToUSDPrice # => $136.76

That’s $136.76 USD at the time of writing. This is hypothetical, until I decide to deploy to the main-net.

To me, for a fun little project which probably nobody would use, that price was too high. I don’t know how much I’d be willing to spend, but $136.76 is too much.

I Googled how to improve the efficiency of a contract’s deployment and found this little paper. So I got rid of some variables and hard-coded the values instead, among other changes. With each change, I’d run truffle compile and estimateGas().

First, I got it down to 708,354 gas, then 644,904 gas. Then it went up again to 695,936 gas; some things I did made it worse. Unintuitively, using larger integer types such as uint (256 bits) instead of smaller (uint8) reduces gas costs.

I also experimented with increasing the size of the world from 5x5 to 10x5. That brought the deployment price up to 652,508 gas and the transaction price to 106,708 gas. Committing to this, though, would mean re-doing the tests since the size is now hardcoded in the contract. By this point, I had sunk more than enough time into it.

In the end, I settled on a solution with these hypothetical costs:

I was happy with this amount of rewriting in order to get a more efficient contract working.


I’ve become quite familiar with the concept of “Web 3.0.” In this “version” of the web, everything is distributed across a network rather than centralised in servers and served up to clients. It would appear though that for the time being, the only part of traditional web app which gets distributed is the backend.

In order to interact with this backend from a web browser, I had to install web3, a JavaScript API for Ethereum, which involved a lot of async await statements and polling.

In this world, rather than my backend being located at an IP address, resolved by a domain such as gameoflife.com, it’s located at an Ethereum address which is resolved by a contract name such as GameOfLife, which may or may not be on the specified network.

It’s an interesting paradigm shift, but interacting with it through a web browser currently still involves using traditional HTTP-based servers. Maybe there’s a future where that isn’t the case?

Why’d I do it?

The future of cryptocurrency is uncertain, and my feelings about the subject change every day. However, Bitcoin and Ethereum are in the news a lot right now, so it feels relevant. There is a chance there’ll be more demand for smart contracts and developers who know how to work with them in the future. It feels important for me to keep on learning new skills not only to progress my career, but to make life more interesting.

Why not put it on the main-net?

As I explained earlier, the gas price for deployment is fairly high. After showing it to a few Ethereum enthusiasts, I came to the conclusion that there was no need to spend the money, buy the ETH and put it on the main-net. There are better uses of this blockchain out there than Conway’s Game of Life. My goal here was experimentation and learning, both of which I achieved with the Rinkeby test network. Oh, and if you come across a contract called ConwaysGameOfLife on the main-net, unless I edit this post and mention it here, it isn’t mine!


I learned that writing basic Smart Contracts for Ethereum isn’t too tricky - like with any sofware, there’s an input and an output. The challenge, as expected, was getting my environment set up. It wasn’t too difficult to do that, though.

I also learned how one can create an interface between “web 2.0” applications and “web 3.0” applications, and the tooling available for that is pretty decent too. For instance, if I wanted to ask for a donation in ETH I could make it super easy with a JavaScript function.

Also, a mind to application performance means a heck of a lot more when the operating cost can be measured in direct, immediate currency transactions, as opposed to a some-time-in-the-future slight increase in AWS fees over time, for example.

Remember, you can take a look at Conway’s Game of Life for Ethereum right now. If you’d like to check out the code or maybe make some improvements or raise an issue, the code is on GitHub and I’d love to hear from you.

As a final note, I’d like to offer sincere thanks to ligi for trying it out and offering valuable opinions, as well as Reddit users /u/FrequentMushroom, /u/liberated, /u/Phistofeles, /u/hodak2 and /u/squeeze_tooth_paste for trying it also. I’d also like to thank my very good friends for their keen eyes and candid critique: the ever-encouraging and intelligent Jon Finerty and Matt Lewis.

Heckle me on Twitter @basicallydan.